Does the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis mitigate late blight in potato plants?

Revue publiée par le groupe de recherche Amérique Latine, Histoire et Mémoire de l'Université Paris 8. Lire la suite

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Spécifications


Éditeur
Presses universitaires de Louvain
Auteur
Pierre-Louis Alaux,
Set
Thèses de l'Université catholique de Louvain (UCL)
Langue
espagnol, français
BISAC Subject Heading
TEC003090 TECHNOLOGY & ENGINEERING / Agriculture / Organic
BIC subject category (UK)
TVP Pest control
Code publique Onix
06 Professionnel et académique
CLIL (Version 2013-2019 )
3070 Agriculture
Date de première publication du titre
30 juin 2020
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
: Productions agricoles et biologie appliquée
: Agronomie et agriculture

Livre broché


Date de publication
27 mai 2020
ISBN-13
9782875589378
Ampleur
Nombre de pages de contenu principal : 314
Code interne
100460
Format
16 x 24 cm
Poids
502 grammes
Type de packaging
Aucun emballage extérieur
Prix
38,00 €
ONIX XML
Version 2.1, Version 3

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Acknowledgement ......................................................................... 7
List of abbreviation ....................................................................... 9
Glossary ....................................................................................... 13
Summary...................................................................................... 15
Outline of the thesis .................................................................... 17
Author's contribution ................................................................. 21
Introduction ............................................................................................. 23
State of the art ......................................................................................... 27
I. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi ........................................................ 27
1. Introduction ............................................................................... 27
2. The AMF life cycle ................................................................... 29
a. Pre-symbiotic communication: the role of root and fungal
exudates .................................................................................... 31
b. Plant contact and colonization .......................................... 32
c. Arbuscules formation ........................................................ 33
d. Late stage of AMF ............................................................ 35
3. Plant-AMF exchanges and symbiosis control ........................... 35
4. Taxonomy, phylogeny and traceability of AMF ....................... 36
a. First step of classification ................................................. 36
b. Molecular classification .................................................... 37
c. International culture collection ......................................... 38
d. Markers for phylogenetic analyses ................................... 39
e. Traceability of AMF ......................................................... 40
II. Benefits and agronomic applications of AMF ............................. 41
1. Introduction ............................................................................... 41
2. Ecosystem services provided by AMF to agriculture ............... 41
a. Impact on plant nutrition ................................................... 41
b. Impact on soil formation and water retention ................... 43
c. Bioregulation of plant development and modification in
plant compounds ....................................................................... 44
d. Abiotic stress alleviation by AMF .................................... 45
e. Biotic stress mitigation by AMF ....................................... 46
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3. Impact of agronomic practice on AMF ..................................... 69
4. AMF diversity in arable soil ..................................................... 71
5. AMF functional diversity and plant breeding program ............ 72
III. Pathosystem .................................................................................. 72
1. Solanum tuberosum ................................................................... 72
a. History of potato domestication ........................................ 72
b. Potatoes genetic characteristics ......................................... 73
c. Potato production .............................................................. 73
d. Market price and pest management cost ........................... 74
e. Nutritional value of potatoes ............................................. 74
2. Phytophtora infestans ............................................................... 75
a. Introduction ....................................................................... 75
b. Life cycle of Phytophthora infestans ................................ 76
c. Sexual reproduction .......................................................... 77
d. Infection models ............................................................... 77
e. Phytophthora infestans molecular marker ........................ 78
f. Potato defense response against P. infestans .................... 78
3. Late blight management ............................................................ 79
a. Introduction ....................................................................... 79
b. Late blight management via copper .................................. 80
c. Integrated late blight management .................................... 80
d. Beneficial microorganism and late blight management .... 81
e. Regulation framework ...................................................... 91
IV. Plant defense ................................................................................. 92
1. Introduction ............................................................................... 92
a. Pathogen recognition ........................................................ 93
b. The "Zig Zag" model ........................................................ 93
c. Plant defense: hormones and genes .................................. 95
d. Systemic plant defense induction ...................................... 95
2. Pathogen-induced systemic acquired resistance (SAR) ............ 96
3. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) by beneficial microbes ....... 97
4. Priming ...................................................................................... 98
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a. Introduction ....................................................................... 98
b. Priming defense triggers ................................................... 99
c. Priming steps ..................................................................... 99
d. Epigenetic part of priming .............................................. 100
e. Primed state ..................................................................... 100
5. Mycorrhiza induced resistance ............................................... 101
a. Introduction ..................................................................... 101
b. Mycorrhiza induced resistance in belowground plant parts
102
c. Mycorrhiza induced resistance and systemic response ... 104
6. Common mycorrhizal network ............................................... 105
a. Introduction ..................................................................... 105
b. Nutrients carrier .............................................................. 105
c. Defense signal carrier ..................................................... 106
Research objectives ............................................................................... 109
Material and Methods .......................................................................... 111
I. Organisms ...................................................................................... 111
II. Study model and experimental set up ........................................ 112
1. Mycelium donor plant (MDP) in vitro culture system ............ 113
2. Greenhouse and Field experiment........................................... 114
a. Pre-mycorrhization of potato sprouted tuber .................. 114
b. Field trials setups ............................................................ 116
III. Organisms assessment ............................................................... 119
1. Density of AMF propagules evaluated by the Most Probable
Number (MPN) method ................................................................. 119
2. Root colonization of AMF evaluated by Mc Gonigle et al.
(1990) method. ............................................................................... 122
3. Late blight inoculation and evaluation of infection under
controlled conditions ...................................................................... 124
IV. Molecular methods ..................................................................... 125
1. Selection of genes for RT-qPCR analyses .............................. 125
a. Reference genes .............................................................. 125
b. Target genes .................................................................... 126
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2. Relative quantification in RT-qPCR ....................................... 128
Research results .................................................................................... 131
Chapter I. Tracing native and inoculated Rhizophagus irregularis in
three potato cultivars (Charlotte, Nicola and Bintje) grown under
field conditions .................................................................................. 133
Chapter II. Impact of Rhizophagus irregularis MUCL 41833 on
disease symptoms caused by Phytophthora infestans in potato grown
under field conditions ....................................................................... 159
Chapter III. Interplant signaling via common mycorrhizal networks
might warn uninfected potato plants from late blight outbreak .. 189
Overview of the Scientific Achievements ............................................ 231
General discussion ................................................................................ 215
Conclusion et perspectives ................................................................... 225
Overview of the Scientific Achievements ............................................ 231
Supplementary data .............................................................................. 231
References .............................................................................................. 251
Annex ................................................................................................. 295