The concept of human rights has emerged in the late 18th century, but was actually imposed after the Second World War.
Human rights are now protected by international commitments, such as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in legal texts and institutions like the European Court of Human Rights. The European Union and the Belgian Constitution also guarantees fundamental rights.
Recently, human rights are challenged because they reflect primarily a Western view of the world, ideologically oriented. The enlargement of the rights of the second and third generation has strengthened the rights of man, but these new rights are more difficult to implement. The sanctions when human rights are violated are very uneven, despite advances such as the creation of the International Criminal Court.
This file is around this complex issue, paying particular attention to debates surrounding human rights and the standards applicable in Belgium and the European Union. Written in clear, its purpose is educational, not legal.