In 1999, the French Community adheres to the Bologna Declaration, which commits European countries to converge their higher education. This commitment is embodied in the Bologna decree, passed in March 2004. Until then, the French Community had nine academic institutions, but comparisons or groupings of institutions were regularly discussed. Uncoordinated initiatives in 2002 had led to the consolidation of universities into three "clusters", which dominated the traditional divisions between denominational and non-denominational and between public and private sectors.
The European space gives a new significance to these issues by increasing competition between universities. These projects will cautiously accept the rationalization of the political authorities with the creation of academies, which are modeled largely on the profiles of clusters 2002.
Michel Molitor traces the historical evolution of the academic landscape since the 1960s. It updates the contradictions between the logic of reconciliation on the philosophical foundations and approaches to competition location. It examines in depth the processes initiated by the Bologna decree: integration of high schools to universities, integration or merger within the academies. It echoes the parliamentary debate which often denounces the lack of political leadership of the process and remains committed to maintaining the "great balance between families philosophical, while the current movements sometimes appear to threaten them.