Historic Nail Development and Morphology as a way of developing dating methods Christopher Ian How Décembre 2020

With case studies of British and Australian nails for the period 1680-1890

This thesis is about finding, identifying, and then using, changes in nails as a forensic method to date buildings, extensions to buildings, repairs, and later insertions. Read More

This thesis is about finding, identifying, and then using, changes in nails as a forensic method to date buildings, extensions to buildings, repairs, and later insertions.
The thesis traces the historical development of European/Western nails, isolating the three main world nail industries and their export markets. It then provides case studies for British and Australian nails. Using a process of synthesis, it builds sets of dating charts by decade, of direct use to researchers in the field and to all those interested in datig aspects of heritage buildings.
The thesis makes a series of conclusions, primary of wich are;
• The morphologies of Western nails emanate from Roman enforced practices
• The Liège nail industry was the first and foremost world player
• Developments of an English nail industry sprung from invention and from transport solutions
• The American cut nail industry was enabled by their early switch to softwood framing in the building industry, and by massive, sustained, population growth
• The system of dating developed by the thesis was found to work best for decades starting in 1830, but it loses accuracy after 1890.
Recommendations are made for future studies based around information found during the research.


Paperback - In English 58.00 €

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Specifications


Publisher
Presses universitaires de Louvain
Author
Christopher Ian How,
Set
Language
English
BISAC Subject Heading
ARC009000 ARCHITECTURE / Methods & Materials > ARC005070 ARCHITECTURE / History / Modern (late 19th Century to 1945)
BIC subject category (UK)
TG Mechanical engineering & materials
Onix Audience Codes
06 Professional and scholarly
CLIL (Version 2013-2019)
3069 TECHNIQUES ET SCIENCES APPLIQUEES > 3071 Génie civil > 3075 Bâtiment
Title First Published
07 April 2022
Subject Scheme Identifier Code
: Architecture et génie civil

Paperback


Publication Date
07 April 2022
ISBN-13
9782390612087
Extent
Main content page count : 492
Code
103091
Dimensions
16 x 24 cm
Weight
776 grams
Packaging Type
No outer packaging
List Price
58.00 €
ONIX XML
Version 2.1, Version 3

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Contents


Introduction
0.1 QUESTIONS POSED BY THE RESEARCH 3
0.2 AN ANALYSIS OF THE CURRENT STATE OF THE ART 3
0.3 CONFRONTING THE METHODOLOGY 4
Chapter 1: The State of the Art
OVERVIEW 15
1.0 A CURRENT REVIEW 15
1.2 DEFINING AND UNDERSTANDING NAIL FUNCTION 28
1.3 ADVENT OF CHANGES IN NAIL SHANK CHARACTERISTICS 43
1.4 REVIEW OF INFORMATION SOURCES 49
1.5 SUMMARY 50
Chapter 2: Research Background & Methodology
OVERVIEW 53
2.1 A RATIONAL APPROACH 55
2.2 KEYS TO COMPARISON 59
2.3 METHODOLOGY MEANS OF REFERENCE
2.4 INTERPRETATION METHODS – SAMPLES, GRADES AND SOURCES 69
2.5 THESIS INTENT 71
Chapter 3: Ores – Influences on Nail-Making 73
OVERVIEW 75
3.1 IRON FROM ORES 75
3.2 BRITISH IRON PARADOX 80
3.3 SALVATION BY TECHNOLOGY 89
3.4 LIEGE: FROM EUROPEAN TO INTERNATIONAL NAIL CENTRE 101
3.5 EUROPE'S CROSS-CONNECTIONS 106
3.6 THE NORTH AMERICAN SCENE 109
3.7 ALTERNATIVE METALS 115
3.8 A WORLD SCENE 120
3.9 SUMMARY OF EFFECTS 124
3.10 IDENTIFICATION 126
Chapter 4: Identification, Nomenclature & Findings
OVERVIEW 129
4.1 FINDINGS 129
Part One: Wrought nails
Part Two: Cast nails
Part Three: Cut nails
Part Four: Mechanically wrought nails
Part Five: Wire nails
Chapter 5: Data Synthesis
OVERVIEW 251
5.1
5.2 NAIL OCCURRENCE PATTERNS WITHIN EACH ZONE 257
5.3 NAILS IN ZONES ANALYSED BY DECADES 265
5.4 THE POST STUDY PERIOD 1890 ONWARDS 286
5.5 SUMMARY 287
Chapter 6: Discussions 289
OVERVIEW
6.1 PART 1 – BACKGROUND PARAMETERS 291
6.2 PART 2 - LEAD-UP TO STUDY PERIOD 294
6.3 LESSONS FROM THE STUDY PERIOD 297
6.4 SUMMARY 306
Chapter 7: Conclusions 309
OVERVIEW 310
7.1 GOALS AND CONCLUSIONS 311
7.2 SUMMARIES 317
CONCLUSIONS – française 318